1895 Edison's Kinetophone, a machine devised to show moving pictures simulataneously with sound is first exhibited in Durban in August. (Muller, p.42)
1890s Orpheus McAdoo’s Jubilee Singers, an African-American minstrel and vaudevillian group, tours South Africa. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 638)
1897 Enoch Sontonga composes Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrica (God Bless Africa) at Nancefield Hostel in Johannesburg. (IHSA, p.209)
1899 Sontonga’s Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrica is first performed. (IHSA, p.209)
1903 Hugh Travers Tracey is born in Devon, UK. (Hudson, Rough Guide, p. 669)
1906 The very first recording in Afrikaans was made by the Springbok Rugby team, captained by Paul Roos, when they toured Britain. The recording featured the "Springbok War Cry" and "Springboks Conversing in the Taal" and was characterised as "Afrikander Descriptive". (Released on Gramophone Concert Record, GC 4608.) (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 35) [Trewhela has the captain as Gideon Roos but Richard Haslop maintains that it was actually Paul Roos.]

The modest beginnings of South Africa’s recording industry. [According to Veit Erlmann, but he does not say what it is.] (Erlmann, African Stars, p. 142)

Trewhela suggests that the first recordings by Clarence Vivian Becker, an attorney, but also specialising in humurous monologues, were made in 1908 (based on a report in Die Burger from 1963). (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 35)

1909 Solomon Linda is born in Masinga, Natal. (Erlamnn, Nightsong, p. 60)
1912 Gramophone Company Limited (UK) with its Zonophone and HMV labels send the 1st portable field-recording unit to Cape Town and Johannesburg. (Meintjes, p. 275; Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 638)

Foreign recordings are first advertised in South Africa. Amongst these is the Afrikaans track Vat Jou Goed en Trek, Ferreira. (Muller, p.41) The record dealer, Mackay Brothers, advertised Zonophone 10" double discs for 3 shillings and six pence and 12" disc for 5 shillings. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 44)

Daar Kom die Alibama is recorded by Mac Jackson and released on the Zonophone label at some point during this period. The exact date is inconclusive. The label refers to the music as "Kitchen Dutch". (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 35)

  Sontonga’s Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrica  is performed at the first meeting of the South African Native National Congress. (IHSA, p.209)
1918 CJ Langenhoven writes the lyrics for Die Stem Van Suid-Africa on May 31, 1918. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 15)
1920 Hugh Tracey, at 17 moves from the UK to Southern Rhodesia to work with his brother in the tobacco fields. (Hudson, Rough Guide, p. 669)
1923 Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrica is recorded for the first time by Sol Plaatje, ANC co-founder at Gramophone Company Limited (Zonophone, HMV) in London. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 638)
  First radio broadcast takes place 18th or 29th of December in Johannesburg by [conflicting sources] SA Railways (Hamm, PPMP, p. 212) or Western Electric Company (Mardon, Pumahouse).
  Sebatana Rupert Bopape is born in Limpopo. ( Lotay, Matsuli)
1924 The Associated Scientific & Technical Club of Johannesburg takes over the radio transmissions and establishes the first radio station, “JB Calling” on July 1st. (Erasmus, Pumahouse).
  The Durban Corporation starts a radio service called “Durban & Pietermaritzburg Calling” on December 10th. (Erasmus, Pumahouse). A Marconi ‘Q’ transmitter with a broadcast radius of 100 miles is installed in the Durban City Hall. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  The Cape Peninsula Publicity Association starts a radio service “Cape Town Calling” in Cape Town on [conflicting dates] December 15th (Erasmus, Pumahouse) or September 15th (Mardon, Pumahouse).
1925 Sontonga’s Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrica is adopted by the African National Congress (ANC) as its anthem. (IHSA, p.209)
  Afrikaans language radio is established in Natal. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
1926 Eric Gallo opens Brunswick Gramophone House as a retail business to distribute imported records. (Meintjes, p. 275) Gallo, at 21, opens the retail store in the Royal Arcade in Johannesburg with a £1000 loan from his father in February of 1926. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 34)
1927 Zulu language radio is introduced in Natal on January 17th by the Zulu Versatile Company. The half-hour program is broadcast between 9:30pm and 10:00pm. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  All three regional radio services in JHB, CT and DBN, with permission of the government, are taken over by the Schlesinger Organisation (IW Schlesinger) and on April 1st formed into the African Broadcasting Company (ABC). The service is mainly in English with an hour of Afrikaans, daily. (Erasmus, Pumahouse). ABC Broadcasting in Cape Town starts on June 1st and in Durban on July 1st. (Mardon, Pumahouse) ABC has the sole rights of broadcasting. (Mishkind, Web) A thirty minute broadcast in Afrikaans is only introduced in 1931. (Hamm, PPMP, p. 213)

Hugh Tracey, after working with Karanga men in the fields of Southern Rhodesia and learning their language; takes the men to Johannesburg to make the first ever recordings of Rhodesian traditional music. (Hudson, Rough Guide, p. 669) [This is contradicted by Coplan who states:] Tracey, then based in Durban, made a pioneering field recording expedition to Mozambique and Rhodesia. (Coplan, tonight, p. 162)

The Karanga men were recorded by Columbia Records (UK) on a visit to South Africa. (Muller, p.10) [Reconcile with Meintjes in 1930.] These recordings were sent to producer, John Hammond of CBS in New York, who would incude one of them in his concert series, From Spirituals to Swing at Carnegie Hall in 1938. (Muller, p.10)


Mr. Smith Wakes Up, a British film, is the first "talkie" to be shown in South Africa in Johannesburg on July 6th. (Muller, p.42) RKO's first sound musical, Syncopation, is shown in Johannesburg on September 13th and Al Jolson's The Singing Fool soon follows. (Muller, p.42)

Al Jolson's Sonny Boy helps boost sales for Gallo's Brunswick store. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 34)

1930 Columbia Records (UK?) send the 2nd mobile recording unit to RSA. (Meintjes, p. 275)

Early in the 1930s Eric Gallo shifts his business into wholesale. In 1930 and 1931 he sends Afrikaans musicians and then African musicians to UK to record for his new SINGER label. (Meintjies, p. 276, Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 638)
Gallo sends Griffith Motsieloa and Ignatius Monare to London to record songs. Motsieloa gets there 10 days before Caluza’s arrival at the HMV studios.  (Erlmann, African Stars, p. 143) Daniel Marivate also records in London at the Decca Studios for Gallo. (Coplan, Tonight, p. 162)

The first Afrikaans recordings released by Gallo came about during the 1930 Empire games when a number of Springbok athletes, Harry Hart, JH Viljoen, and Quentin Davies were asked to record a few sports songs in the UK. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 35)

  Ruben Caluza makes 150 landmark recordings at Gramophone Company Limited (Zonophone, HMV) in London. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 638)
1931 Hugh Tracey meets the composers Ralph Vaughn-Williams and Gustav Holt in London. They advise him to eschew analysis in favour of recording as much as possible. (Hudson, Rough Guide, p. 670)
  The Bantu Glee Singers are formed by Nimrod Makhanya who was a member of Caluaza’s Double Quartet when it traveled to London the previous year. (Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 60)
  A thirthy minute broadcast in Afrikaans is introduced on ABC radio. (Hamm, PPMP, p. 213)
1930s Phil Goldblatt becomes an assitant to Gallo in the early 1930s. Alec Delmont joins a year later. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 34)
1932 Gallo builds first recording studio “in the basement of the Embassy, a ‘bioscope-café’ around the corner from the Rissik Street Post Office on President Street in Johannesburg. (Meintjes, p. 77) [Allingham states that Gallo masters were only produced in 1933. Veit Erlmann fixes the date as 1932 (Erlmann, African Stars, p. 142) as does Trewhela (p. 34).]
  As good music in English could easily be imported from the UK and the USA, Gallo seldom records original South African music in the English language. (Muller, p.40)

Hugh Tracey travels to Southern Rhodesia and records, amongst others, two musicians that he recalls later in particular, Kadore and Kaninungu in Mtoko. When he returns 15 years later in 1948 to rerecord the brothers he finds that Kadore has died. (AMS Newsletter, vol.1 no.1, 1948)

From June 1932 to July 1933 Tracey records over 600 tracks on aluminum discs. (Muller, p.11)

  Indian Service for Natal radio programs are broadcast from the old studios at the Durban City Hall. The programs are in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, Urdu and Gujerati and consist almost entirely of 78 rpm records. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  Zenzile Miriam Makeba is born in Prospect Township, Johannesburg. (Makeba, My Story, p.5)
  CJ Langenhoven, the composer of Die Stem, dies. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 16)
1933 Gallo relocates his recording studio to 160 Market Street. (Meintjes, p. 77) [*Could also be 1929. Meintjies has different dates in her text and in her notes, p. 27, p. 275.]
  Gallo producers its first masters in South Africa. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 638)
1934 JBM Hertzog, SA prime minister orders an official investigation into all aspects of broadcasting in South Africa. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  Percival Kirby's Musical Instruments of the Native Races of South Africa is published by Oxford University Press
1935 HMV has a ‘native’ catalogue of 366 discs with sales of 86 436. (Coplan, Tonight, p. 162)
  Hugh Tracey is appointed Branch Manager of Natal for ABC radio and establishes Radio Bantu – Zulu broadcasts in February. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  ABC radio in Durban opens its new studios in Aliwal Street on July 15th. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
1936 Hertzog’s investigation into broadcasting financial problems leads to the establishment of the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) through an official act of parliament (Act 22 of 1936). ABC is replaced by the SABC/SAUK on August 1st. Initially the new service broadcasts in English only. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  Hugh Tracey continues to promote African Music as the director of the Natal studios of SABC Radio. He continues in this position until 1947. (AHPA)
1937 The Broadcasting Act of 1936 stipulated that a parallel Afrikaans radio service be established and in 1937 the SABC establishes two services in both official languages: “A” in English and “B” in Afrikaans. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1938 Gallo builds a new studio on the 6th floor of the corner of Troye and President Streets. This studio will remain for the next three decades. (Meintjes, p. 276)
  Griffiths Motsieloa is employed by Gallo as a talent scout. (Coplan, Tonight, p. 163)
  Simon "Mahlathini" Nkabinde is born in Alexandra Township. (Lotay, Matsuli)
  The SABC organises a "boereorkes" in an attemp to reconstruct an Afrikaans traditional music. (Tomaselli via Hamm, PPMP, p. 223) This 'orkes' was formed when Hendrik Susan met Pieter de Waal of the SABC and they constructed a band for radio performances. Only three in the group were Afrikaans and so names were changed to appeal to the Afrikaans audience. Prior to that Hendrik Susan had performed professionally with other groups including playing sax and violin with the Jazz Maniacs at Orange Grove. The group include Freddie Luyt on piano, Les Kelly (Les Meintjies) on bass, Billy Wright on guitar, Chris Lessing on vocals, Sam Petzer on piano accorsian and Hendrik Susan. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 50) This group was the beginnning of what became known as 'boeremusic'. Hendrik Susan's band followed the old trek route during the centenary of the Gret Trek, broadcasting each night. As a result of this they were for many years often considered as crusaders for the Nationalist Party. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 51)
1939 Douglas Fuchs, programme director at Cape Town's SABC studios suggests a series of "boeremusiek" and enlists an octet called Wouter de Wet Voolslagorkes under the leadership of Walter Swanson. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 54)
  Llewelynn Hughes constructs a studio, La Fayette (Better, Tier), and two record presses in competition with Gallo. The presses give Hughes a major advantage over Gallo in terms of production time as Gallo was still shipping masters off to Decca (UK) to be pressed. (Meintjes, p. 276)
  Gallo opens a record-pressing plant in Roodepoort and employs Solomon Linda as a packer there. Linda soon attracts the attention of Gallo’s talent scout Griffith Motsieloa and soon the track Mbube (GE 829) is recorded. (Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 61)
  The Jazz Maniacs make the first marabi jazz recording, Zuluboy Cele’s Izikhalo Zika Z-Boy on La Fayette’s Better label (Better, XU 9a). (Coplan, Tonight, p.164)
  Arnold Golembo establishes Gramophone Record Company (GRC) in Johannesburg. (Wikipedia) In the 1940s GRC, a family owned retail business, moves into production. Gallo provides financial assistance and in return GRC records most of its products at Gallo Studios. (Meintjes, p. 276)
1939-45 Importation of foreign pressed records dwindles due to the Second World War. (Muller, p.41)
1940 African language transmissions relay information to the townships as a wartime measure via telephone lines, in Zulu, Xhosa & Sesotho. (Erasmus, Pumahouse) [Reconcile with Mardon, 1927 and also Coplan in 1941.] [Hamm has it at 1940.]
1941 Broadcasting for Africans begins in Durban with a five-minute report of war news in Zulu by King Edward Masinga. This service was extended to JHB and the eastern Cape, increased to 15 and then 35 minutes. Masinga, a talented writer, introduced African radio drama with the help of the broadcaster, Hugh Tracey. (Coplan p. 199) [Not necessarily all in 1941.] [Mardon puts Masinga’s first broadcast at 1942.] [Erasmus puts it at 1940 as transmissions via telephone lines to the townships in Zulu, Xhosa & Sesotho.]
1942 Radio Bantu has its first broadcast from Johannesburg. (Mardon, Pumahouse) [Mardon’s dates are inconclusive.] These consisted of short daily broadcasts on the A & B services of the SABC when those services were inactive. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1944 Hugh Tracey and KE Masinga release the bilingual collaborative book “Chief Above and Chief Below—A musical play for Africans.” (JIAI, Book Reviews, 1944)
1945 Hughes sells La Fayette Studios to Arthur Harris. Harris builds a new studio and improves sound quality over the next four years and becomes a formidable competitor to Gallo. (Meintjes, p. 276)
1946 Gallo (Pty) Ltd becomes a public company and trades as Gallo Africa Limited. (Meintjes, p. 276)
  GRC obtains the South African franchise for Capitol records label. (Wikipedia)
  Hugh Tracey joins Gallo Africa Ltd. (AMTL & AMR catalogue, Gallo, 1951)
  The composer Danie Bosman (Daniel Ferdinand Bosman) dies. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 56)
1947 [La Fayette] Trutone dispatches field-recording units into rural areas. Gallo follows suit. Gallo’s endeavors here are quite lucrative due to the companies association with ethnomusicologist Hugh Tracey. (Meintjes, p. 277)
  The African Music Society (AMS) is formed with Hugh Tracey as honorary secretary and Sir Evelyn Baring as president, on August 15th, 1947 (AMS Newsletter, vol.1 no.1, 1948)
  Radio Bantu has its first broadcast from Durban. (Mardon, Pumahouse) [Mardon’s dates are inconclusive.]

Short programs in isiZulu, Xhosa and Sesotho resume on the English and Afrikaans radio services after being suspended in 1945. Two “African programs” were broadcast on Tuesday and Thursday mornings from 9:45 to 10:15am. (Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 251

Hamm has it as three broadcasts a week in Xhosa (from Cape Town) and Sotho (from Johannesburg) intepolated in the English and Afrikaans services; while Zulu is broadcast daily in Durban. [Hamm, MMPM, p. 214]

  Hugh Tracey leaves his position as head of the Natal studios of SABC Radio. (AHPA)
  Miriam Makeba performs as a soloist before King George VI during the Royal visit to South Africa. Ironically, the choir performs the director's—Joseph Matuba— "What a Sad Day for A Black Man" which untranslated goes undetected by the authorities. (Makeba, My Story, p. 23)
1948 America Columbia label introduces shellac discs into the South African market. (Meintjies, p. 277) [Is this incorrect?]
  Hugh Tracey begins the first of a series of recording field trips into Africa (1948 – 1963) that will form the basis of his “Sound of Africa” 210 LP series. (Hudson, Rough Guide, p. 670) Tracey records over 200 items in Southern and Northern Rhodesia over a 5 week period in April and May of 1948. (AMS Newsletter, vol.1 no.1, 1948)
  The African Music Society (AMS) publishes its first newsletter in June 1948. (AMS Newsletter, vol.1 no.1, 1948)
  Chopi Musicians by Hugh Tracey is published by Oxford University Press.
  Lalela Zulu by Hugh Tracey is published by the African Music Society.
  South Africa's conservative National Party comes into power, marking the beginning of formalised apartheid, which would grip the country for the next 40 years.

Harris changes the name of La Fayette to Trutone Industries. (Meintjes)

Arthur Harris asks Anton De Waal (aka George Charles Gunn) to set up a music publishing office for Trutone. Ralph Trewhela is asked to do the same for Gallo. (Trewhela, Song Safari, p. 57) De Waal would go on to become a succesful song writer with Nico Carstens.

  The film African Jim (aka Jim comes to Joburg) one of the first to feature an all 'African' cast is released. Directed by Donald Swanson and produced by Eric Rutherford, the movie establishes Dolly Rathebe as a great singing star. (Villon Films)
  Gallo shifts from the old direct disc-mastering system to tape-mastering machines and constructs its first pressing plant. (Meintjes, p. 277) [The record pressing plant is contradicted by Erlmann who dates it at 1939. (Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 61)] [Trewhela has it as 1949.]
  The Manhattan Brothers record their first tracks Umlilo / Tandiwe (GB 939) with Gallo. (Rasmussen, Mogotsi, p. 124) The group over a 15 year period would include Joe Mogotsi, Ronnie Sehume, Rufus Khoza and Nathan 'Dambuza' Mdledle. (Allingham, Best of MB)
1950 The first commercial radio station, the “C” service and then renamed Springbok Radio, is established by the SABC and begins broadcasting on May 1st in English and Afrikaans. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  The film Zonk! featuring a diverse range of 'African' music is released. The film is directed by Hyman Kierstan and produced by Ike Brooks Baruch. (Villon Films)
1951 EMI (UK) builds a studio in Johannesburg. (Meintjies, p. 77)
  EMI hires Rupert Bopape as a "black music" talent scout. (Lotay, Matsuli) [reconcile with Allingham, 1952]
  Troubadour Records is established with Cuthbert Matumba as “talent scout producer”. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640) (Eyre, Afropop)
  One of EMI’s local subsidiaries, TEAL Records, becomes a prominent player throughout the 50s and 60s. (Meintjies, p. 277)
  Willard Cele, who is credited with developing the technique and style of playing the pennywhistle flute that became kwela, performs in the film The Magic Garden (aka The Pennywhistle Blues). (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  The film Song of Africa featuring the African Ink Spots, amongst others is released. The movie is directed by Emil Nofal and produced by African Films. (Villon Films)
  Gallo changes the prefix of its catalogue numbers for African issues from GE to GB (Roughly around GE 1277 or GE 1278). Prior to that GE was used for both Afrikaans and African issues. (Rasmussen, Mogotsi, p. 124)
  The first catalogue of the African Music Transcription Library (AMTL), the precursor to ILAM, is published by Gallo (Africa) Ltd in July, 1951. The catalogue is the product of Hugh Tracey’s organization, African Music Research (AMR). (AMTL & AMR catalogue, Gallo, 1951)
1952 Gallo starts pressing long-playing vinyl discs: LP records (Meintjies, p. 277)
  Strike Vilikazi becomes a “talent-scout/producer” for Trutone and runs their black division until 1970. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  Rupert Bopape joins EMI and becomes a producer for their HMV and Columbia labels. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640) [Reconcile with Lotay, 1951]

The SABC introduces a rediffussion service for the township of Orlando on August 8th, 1952. Service was only avaiable via paid subscription from 6 am to 9 pm during the week and 9 am until 9 pm on Sundays. (Hamm, PPMP, p. 215)

The Rediffusion Service relaying African language broadcasts is introduced. It broadcasts in Southern Sotho, Zulu and Xhosa to townships west of Johannesburg. (Erasmus, Pumahouse) [Erlmann dates this to the early 40s.] This service targeting elite black South Africans initially has 4300 subscribers but expands to 14 000 by 1956. (Hamm, PPMP, p. 217))

  The total airtime for isiZulu, Xhosa and Sesotho had risen to sixteen hours a day and by the late 1950s more than 60,000 redifussion systems had been installed in Soweto households. (Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 252)
  African Dancers of the Witwatersrand Gold Mines by Hugh Tracey is published by the African Music Society.
  The Weavers with Pete Seeger arrange and record Solomon Linda's Mbube as Wimoweh. It become a hit in the USA. (Muller, p.5)
  Miriam Makeba is invited by her cousin's son, Zweli Ngwenya, to join their group, the Cuban Brothers. The band debuts at the Donaldson Centre in Orlando East. Nathan Mdledle, the leader of the popular group, the Manhattan Brothers, sees her perform at the Donaldson Centre. He asks her to come and audition for his group (Makeba, My Story, p. 47)
1953 Gallo is issuing 1.5 million discs of local music annually. (Meintjes, p. 277)
  African Consolidated Sound Industries opens a new high-fidelity record production plant near Johannesburg. (Muller, p.41)
  Hugh Tracey forms The International Library of African Music (ILAM) in Rhoodepoort. The building housing the ILAM collection is erected by Eric Gallo with Tracey renting it from Gallo Records. ILAM is registered as a non-profit organization. (Archivist, Indiana University, 1961)
  The Artists' Union Centre is established in a three-storey building in downtown Johannesburg. The centre is formed in light of the lack of union support for non-white performers. (Makeba, My Story, p.52)

At Gallotone, Miriam Makeba is asked to sing solo, the song Lakutshuna Ilangu, with the Manahattan Brothers backing. This is her first record under her own name. The song, a Xhosa tune composed by Makhwenkwe Dvushe aka Mackay Davashe, is a hit and travels overseas. In 1955, American songwriter, Tom Glazer, writes English lyrics for the tune and Gallotone asks Makeba to rerecord the song in English. The new song is called Lovely Lies. (Makeba, My Story, p. 52)

  Strike Vilikazi records Spokes Mashiyane’s Aces Blues / Kwela Spokes for Trutone (Quality, TJ24) and touches off the commercial pennywhistle kwela craze. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  Dorothy Masuka tours South Africa with others including the Harlem Swingsters and Dolly Rathebe. (Eyre, Afropop)
1955 The Alexander Swing Liners release a track called Sobadubulu Ngembayimbayi with the lyrics “We will shoot the whites with Bazookas”. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 641)
1956 Miriam Makeba is asked by Gallo's Sam Alcock to form an all female group. She does and they first record as the Sunbeams on the Tropik label. The group then records as the Skylarks for Gallotone. The group members shifted over various recordings and included at one time or another: Miriam Makeba, Mary Rabotapi, Mummy Girl Nketle, Abigail Kubeka, Mizpah Makeba, Johanna Radebe and Helen van Rensburg. (Allingham, Skylarks Vol.1)
  Miriam Makeba song, Lovely Lies, with the Manhattan Brothers becomes the first South AFrican recording to enter the US Bilboard Top 100, rising to number 45 in March of 1956. (Allingham, Skylarks Vol.1)
  GRC obtains the South African franchise for CBS records label. (Wikipedia)
  Troubadour allows Dorothy Masuka to record political songs such as Chief Luthuli and Dr Malan. (Coplan, Tonight, p. 176)
  Rupert Bopape 'discovers' and records the group, Black Mambazo (Black Axe) from Alexandra Township. The group includes Elias and Aaron Jack Lerole (Big Voice Jack), brothers Zeph and Simon Nkabinde and David Ramosa. They would record under a number of names including Elias and his Zig Zag Jive Flutes and the Alexandra Shamber Boys. (Lotay, Matsuli)
1957 The Black Mambazo record Tom Hark for EMI which, after being featured on UK TV becomes a massive hit in the UK and spurs an international craze for kwela music. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 641)
  American clarinetist, Tony Scott visits and performs in South Africa over a two week period in August of 1957. The subseqent recording of his time there included performances with the Alexandra Dead End Kids and others.
1958 American Jazz musician, Bud Shank, performs at the Johannesburg City Hall on Aril 17th 1958. He is invited to South Africa by the Rag Comittee of Natal University and his subsequent recording with the Claude Williamson Trio is made at the University on April 23rd, 1958.
  Strike Vilikazi persuades Spokes Mashiyane to swop his pennywhistle for a saxophone resulting in the earliest mbaqanga style or sax jive record, Big Joe Special / Kwela Sax (Trutone, Rave, R42) (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  Gallo lures Spokes Mashiyane away from Trutone and he becomes the first recording artist to receive royalties. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 642)
  The all female group, the Dark City Sisters, is formed and records for EMI. (Lotay, Matsuli)
1959 The Jazz Epistles perform in October at the Selborne Hall in Johannesburg. The lineup includes Dollar Brand, Kippie Moeketsi, Jonas Gwangwa, Hugh Masekela. (Huskisson, p. XI)
  Miram Makeba performs in Lionel Rogosin's film Come Back Africa. In August she accepts Rogosin's invitation to attend the film's premiere at the Venice Film Festival. She leaves South Africa for Europe and then goes to the United States. She does not return until the fall of apartheid in the 1990s.
1960 With the support of Harry Belafonte, Miriam Makeba records her first solo album in the United States. The record simply titled—Miriam Makeba—is a great success and lauches her international career.
  The revised Broadcsat Act establishes a Bantu Programme Control Board, chaired by Piet Meyer, and charged with expanding the current services of Zulu and Xhosa and establishing new ones in Northern Sotho, Southern Sotho, Tswana, Venda and Tsonga. (Hamm, PPMP, p. 225)
  The first Zulu female radio announcer, Winnie Mahlangu, broadcasts from Durban on January 7th. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  Radio Bantu is established on June 1st. (Erasmus, Pumahouse) [Huskisson confirms this.]
  Radio Zulu opens officially as a full time radio station on June 1st in Durban. (Mardon, Pumahouse) [Reconcile with Erasmus: Radio Bantu or Zulu?]
  Mbaqanga rhythms became discernibly heavier with the introduction of the electric bass. Joseph Makwela became a pioneer of this instrument when he acquired the first one, imported by a white session musician, Mannie Parkes, who had seen an example when Cliff Richard and the Shadows played Johannesburg. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 642)
1961 The Jazz Epistles win first prize in the jazz category at the 1961 Cold Castle Jazz Festival. Philip Tabane wins in the solo category. (Gordon, Beyond the Blues, p. 28)
  The English, Afrikaans and Springbok services of the SABC transmit for the first time on FM frequencies on December 25th. (Erasmus, Pumahouse) South Sotho and Zulu services were also broadcast in FM on December 25th. (Mishkind, web) [May need confirmation.]
  Alexius Buthelezi is appointed announcer in the Zulu Service of the SABC in Johannesburg. He starts a weekly show called “Cothoza Mfana” broadcast at first from Johannesburg only. (Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 253)
  American songwriter, George Weiss writes new lyrics for Solomon Linda's Mbube. The new version is titled The Lion Sleeps Tonight and becomes a huge hit for the Tokens. (Muller, p.5)
1962 Mackay Davashe's Jazz Dazzlers win first prize in the jazz category at the 1962 Cold Castle National Jazz Festival held at a footbal stadium in Moroka-Jabavu. Philip Tabane wins again in the solo category. (Gordon, Beyond the Blues, p. 28) On this occassion, the The Jazz Dazzlers included Mackay Davashe, Pat Matshikiza, Saint Moikangoa, Early Mabusa, Kippie Moeketsi, Blythe Mbityana and Dennis Mpali. Other performers at the festival included The Chris McGregor Septet, Ben Masinga, The Woody Woodpeckers, The Jazz Ambassadors, Eric Nomvete's Big Five amogst others.
  Gideon Nxumalo's Jazz Fantasia is performed at Wits Universiy's Great Hall in September of 1962. The group performing included Gideon Nxumalo, Kippie Moeketsi, Dudu Pukwana, Martin Mgijima and Makaya Ntshoko.
  Gallo incorporates Trutone as a subsidiary. (Meintjes, p. 276)
  Radio Bantu is established by the SABC. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 639) [Reconcile with Erasmus/Mardon in 1960] Radio Bantu, as the collective service for all major African languages was called, started operating on January 1st. (Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 252]
  Yvonne Huskisson rises to the position of organizer for the music programs of Radio Bantu. [Erlmann, Nightsong, p. 253]
  Radio Lebowa and Radio Setswana are established on June 1st. (Erasmus, Pumahouse) These stations broadcast Tswana and Northern Sotho respectively from Pretoria. (Mishkind, web)
1963 The Blue Notes aka Chris McGregor and the Castle Lager Big Band win first prize in the jazz category at the 1963 Cold Castle National Jazz Festival. Philip Tabane wins for the third time in the solo category. (Gordon, Beyond the Blues, p. 28) The big band that made the famous recording, Jazz / The African Sound, soon after the festival included Dudu Pukwana, Barney Rachabane, Nick Moyake, Ronnie Beer, Christopher 'Columbus' Ngcukane, Kippie Moeketsi, Bob Tizzerd, Blyth Mbityana, Willie Nettie, Dennis Mpali, Ebbie Creswell, Mongesi Feza, Noel Jones, Sammy Maritz, Early Mabuza and Chris McGregor.
  [Mishkind has Zulu language radio starting in Durban on January 1st. Reconcile with 1960 and 1966.]
  Xhosa language radio is broadcast from Grahamstown on June 1st. (Mishkind, web) [Confirm as Zulu dates may be incorrect.]
1960s Joseph Makwela and Marks Mankwane form the Makhona Tsohle Band in the mid 60s.
1964 Philip Tabane with the Malombo Jazzmen and the Early Mabuza Quartet share first prize at the 1964 Cold Castle Jazz Festival. This is the last time the festival would take place, after gang violence breaks out. (Gordon, Beyond the Blues, p. 28) On this occassion the Malombo Jazzmen includeed Philip Tabane, Abbey Cindi and Julian Bahula. While the early Mabuza Quartet consisted of Early Mabuza, Pat Matshikiza, Barney Rachabane and Ernst Motlhe.
  Rupert Bopape leaves EMI for Gallo to run a new African operation later called Mavuthela Music Company. He brings many of his EMI artists with him. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640) Up until this point saxophonist, Reggie Msomi, and Walter Nhlapo had been producing and scouting for Gallo. (Wikipedia)
  West Nkosi is hired by Gallo. (Wikipedia)
  The first Motella label discs are produced by Mavuthella and Gallo featuring amongst others the Mahotella Queens. (Lotay, Matsuli)
  The SABC’s first regional radio service, Radio Highveld, broadcasts in FM to the Transvaal and OFS, on September 1st. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1965 Cuthbert Matumba at Troubadour dies. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  Radio Tsonga and Radio Venda are established on February 1st in Johannesburg. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  The first formal concert of the Mavuthela team is organised by Gallo's Sam Alcock in Rustenburg and features the Mahotella Queens, the Makhona Tsohle Band, Elijah Nkwanyane's Band, Simon and Zeph Nkabinde and the Alexandra All Star Band . (Lotay, Matsuli)
  The SABC’s 2nd regional radio service, Radio Good Hope, broadcasts to the Cape province, on July 1st. (Ersamus, Pumahouse)
1966 Gallo under Rupert Bopape dominates the African market with a mbaqanga vocal style called mqashiyo. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  GRC, a Gallo subsidiary, hires Hamilton Nzimande as a producer. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  The External Service of the SABC, Radio RSA, starts broadcasting on shortwave frequencies to the world on May 1st in Afrikaans, English, Dutch, German, Portuguese, French and Swahili. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  Radio Zulu, a regional station of the SABC, opens its new studios on September 1st at the new SABC building in Durban. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  A SABC survey shows that 45% of white matriculants listen to LM Radio broadcasting from Lorenco Marques (now Maputo) in Mozambique, beyond the control of the SABC (and South African sensors). (Hamm, PPMP, p. 223)
  Olympia Studios is founded in Durban by <strong>Henry Diffenthal</strong> as a production studio of programming for Springbok Radio. (
1967 Radio Port Natal, a regional station of the SABC, broadcasts its first programs on May 1st at the new SABC building in Durban. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  The new SABC building in Durban, “Broadcasting House” officially opens at 100 Old Fort Road on August 21st. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
1968 RPM recording company is established. (Meintjes, p. 78)
1969 Gallo moves studio to Newkirk Centre on the nearby corner of Kerk and Goud Streets.  Gallo builds a second studio and upgrades equipment from 4-track consoles to 16-track consoles. (Meintjies, p. 77)
  Gallo acquires Troubadour records. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  The Bantu Composers of Southern Africa by Yvonne Huskisson is published by the SABC.
1970s In the early 70s Rupert Bopape at Gallo begins to farm out some production duties to various understudies including, Marks Mankwane, Lucky Monama and West Nkosi. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
1972 David Thekwane is hired as a producer by Teal records. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 640)
  The SABC acquires LM Radio and renames it Radio 5. The station continues to play commercial pop music. (Muller, p.36)
1973 Ladysmith Black Mambazo is introduced to Gallo by West Nkosi (Wikipedia) and records their first LP, Amabutho. (Allingham, Rough Guide, p. 645)
1970s Many new independent studios are established including SATBEL and Takk Studios. (Meintjies, p. 77) RPM constructs a large and grand studio complex named RPM house, with three studios in the late 70s at the corner of Fox and Goud streets, close to Gallo’s Newkirk studios. (Meintjes, p. 78)
1976 Television is officially introduced into South Africa by the SABC on January 5th. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1977 Hugh Tracey dies. (Hudson, Rough Guide, p. 669)
1979 The independant radio station, Capitol Radio, begins broadcasting from Transkei Homeland. (Muller, p.36) [reconcile with Erasmus in 1980]
1980s EMI relocates its facility in the early 80s into industrial Johannesburg and expanded it into a two studio complex. Because of anti-apartheid pressure, EMI renames this facility Powerhouse Studios and establishes a new subsidiary, CCP records (Meintjes, p. 78)
1980 Radio 702 starts broadcasting to the greater Johannesburg area from the ‘independent’ homeland of Bophuthatswana. Capitol Radio 604 starts broadcasting from the ‘independent’ homeland of Transkei. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1982 The SABC establishes TV2 broadcasting television in Zulu and Xhosa, and TV3 in Sesotho languages on January 1st. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  The SABC establishes Radio Swazi on April 1st. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  West Nkosi is the first "black man" to be appointed to the Gallo Board of Directors. (Lotay, Matsuli)
1983 The SABC establishes Radio Lotus, an Indian cultural station, on January 1st. (Mardon, Pumahouse) [Erasmus has it on January 8th.]
  The SABC establishes Radio Ndebele on April 1st.
1984 BOPTV is established in the ‘independent’ homeland of Boputhatswana. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1985 Gallo acquires 100% of RPM and shifts most of its studio production to this facility at RPM House. (Meintjies, p. 78)
  Gallo incorporates GRC and renames the company Gallo-GRC. (Wikipedia)
  The SABC establishes TV4 to combat with BOPTV on March 30th. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  The Indian radio service closes in Durban on December 31st after the establishment of Radio Lotus by the SABC in 1983. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  The SABC’s Sprinkbok Radio closes down officially on December 31st and the English and Afrikaans Services are transformed into two national, commercial stations: Radio South Africa and Radio Suid Afrika respectively. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1986 The SABC establishes three more regional radio stations on January 1st, Radio Jacaranda broadcasting from Pretoria; Radio Algoa from Port Elizabeth; and Radio Oranje from Bloemfontein. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  The SABC establishes Radio 2000 on the old Springbok frequencies on July 1st. The station broadcasts live sports commentaries and television simulcast programs. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  Radio 5 is the first radio station to broadcast in stereo. (Mishkind, web)
  Paul Simon's LP "Graceland", a collaboration with many South African musicians, is released. The album would lauch the successful international career of the group Ladysmith Black Mambazo.
1987 M-NET, the first pay television service, starts broadcasting from Randburg. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
1989 Gallo moves its offices from the Newkirk Centre to the northern suburb of Rosebank while retaining its recording studios at RPM House. (Meintjes, p. 78)
1990 Gallo-GRC is renamed Gallo Record Company. (Wikipedia)
  Prophets of Da City, release South Africa's first hip-hop album, Our World.
1991 Gallo upgrades its recording gear at RPM House and renames the studio Downtown Studios. Gallo establishes a CD-manufacturing plant, CDT. (Meintjes, p. 78)
1993 Powerhouse Studios decides to close down rather than upgrade. (Meintjes, p. 79)
1994 South Africa's historic, first fully democratic elections take place.
  The Independant Broadcast Authority (IBA) is established to work through the transition to democracy. (Muller, p.36)
  Radio Port Natal is sold by the SABC and becomes East Coast Radio on July 1st. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
1995 Radio South Africa, the English service of the SABC is renamed SAFM on March 1st. (Mardon, Pumahouse) Radio Suid Afrika is renamed Afrikaans Stereo on March 1st as well. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  The Independent Broadcasting Authority makes a ruling forcing the SABC to sell 6 of it regional radio stations. They are sold the following year. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  Radio Pretoria, the first fully independent radio station is granted a license. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  Arthur Mafokate records the hit song "Kaffir", a blend of hip-hop and Chicago house rhythms. The song is attributed as one of the first kwaito hits. (Kwaito is the term used to describe South African derived hip-hop.)
1996 Six of the SABC’s regional radio station are sold to private companies on September 30th. These include: Radio Highveld, Radio Algoa, Radio Jacaranda, Radio Port Natal, Radio Oranje and KFM. (Erasmus, Pumuhouse)
  Radio Zulu is renamed Ukhozi FM on October 10th. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  Afrikaans Stereo, the Afrikaans service of the SABC, is renamed Radio Sonder Grense (Radio Without Borders) on October 10th. (Mardon, Pumahouse)
  The independent television service, M-NET, launches Digital Satellite Television or DSTV. (Erasmus, Pumahouse)
  West Nkosi (Gallo) dies. (Wikipedia)
1999 Mandoza, aka Mduduzi Tshabalala, releases his debut kwaito album, 9II5 Zola South.
2000 Mandoza, releases his hugely successful kwaito album, Nkalakatha.
  Zola, aka Bonginkosi Dlamini, releases his debut, classic kwaito album, uMdlwembe.
  Hip Hop Pantsula, aka Jabulani Tsambo, releases his debut solo album Introduction. The album is credited with intoducing Motswako, a new style of hip-hop featuring, in this case, lyrics in Setswana, isiZulu and Sesotho. (Discogs, Wikipedia)
2002 Amandla! A Revolution in Four Part Harmony by Lee Hirsch is released. The film documents the role of music in the struggle against apartheid.
2003 The Zigguart, a limited-edition book with CD, by The Constructus Corporation, featuring rapper Waddy Tudor Jones, is published by African Dope Records and Bell-Roberts.
2004 A community radio station called X-Kfm is established by the SABC in February. The station broadcasts in the San languages of Xu and Khwe. (Muller, p.36)
2006 The film Tsosti, is released. Written and directed by Gavin Hood, it wins the Oscar for the Best-Foreign Fim. The film features the music of kwaito star, Zola, (who also plays a role) as well as other South African musicians, including Vusi Mahlasela.
  Johnnic Communications (renamed Avusa in 2007), Gallo’s parent company, enters into a joint venture with the South African division of Warner Music International forming Warner Music Gallo Africa. (Wikipedia)
  Royalty legal battles over Solomon Linda's Mbube are settled in February with George Weiss's Abilene Music Company agreeing to pay the Linda family for his part in what became The Lion Sleeps Tonight. (Muller, p. 6)
  Zuluboy, releases his debut album, Masihambisane. The album includes Zulu hip-hop elements with a sample blend of many South African 'traditional' styles including Maskanda and Isicathimiya.
  Matsuli a web blog featuring African music and South African Music in particular is launced in March by the UK-based, Matt Temple.
2007 Johnnic Communications, the parent company of Gallo, is renamed Avusa. (Wikipedia)
  ILAM, with an NHC grant, undertakes the digitization of 11,000 images from its photographic archive in conjunction with African Media Online.
  Lucky Dube, South Africa's most successful reggae star, is mudered in Johannesburg on October 18th, 2007
2008 Miriam Makeba dies on November 10th, at the age of 76, after a performance in Italy. Her death comes one week after the historic election of Barack Obama to the United States presidency.
2009 Electric Jive, a web blog, featuring rare and out of print music from South Africa is launched in July.

In February the web-site for the rap group, Die Antwoord, goes viral after a posting on BoingBoing (February 1st). By the end of the month a review of the site had already made its way into The New Yorker magazine. The buzz around the group help draw attention to a number of other South African artists working in a similar style—termed Zef—including Jack Parow, who recently issued a self-titled CD. Some critics accused the group of exploiting lower-class white and 'coloured' cultures, and depicting a personae that was essentially 'fake'. On the other hand their 'role-playing' could be viewed as something similar to Sacha Baron Cohen's Ali-G or Borat. The group features long time rapper, Ninja, aka Watkin Tudor Jones, Yo-Landi Visser, DJ Hi-Tek and was recently signed to Interscope Records in the US.

  In September flatinternational, a web-based archive of South African audio material is published on the internet.
  Dick Khoza's Chapita is the first in a series of limited-edition, classic, vinyl reissues by Matsuli.